About the republic
Kyrgyzstan, officially the Kyrgyz Republic, is a country located in Central Asia. Landlocked and mountainous, Kyrgyzstan is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west, Tajikistan to the southwest and China to the east.
Government: Presidential system, Parliamentary republic, Republic.
Population – 5,548,042 (July 2013 est.).
Urbanization – urban population: 35.3% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 1.31% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.).
Ethnic groups – Kyrgyz 64.9%, Uzbek 13.8%, Russian 12.5%, Dungan 1.1%, Ukrainian 1%, Uighur 1%, other 5.7% (1999 census).
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write.
Total population: 99.2%.
Female: 99% (2009 est.).
Area – 199,951 km2.
Kyrgyzstan – an amazing mountainous country located in the heart of Central Asia.
About 3 – 4 of the territory covered by mountains.
The main wealth of Kyrgyzstan is its pristine pure nature that has managed to piece together the ridges and valleys, alpine meadows and snow-capped peaks, fast flowing rivers and mountain lakes.
The highest peak of the mountain – Lenin Peak (7,134 m). In Kyrgyzstan, there are more than 6500 glaciers, which originate from more than 28 thousand rivers and headwaters. Located on the territory of Kyrgyzstan in Central Asia’s largest forest reserves, which have been preserved in such rare animals as the snow leopard and argali. Natural treasures of the republic is mountainous frost lake Issyk-Kul, located at an altitude of 1606 meters above sea level.
National independence and national sovereignty of the Kyrgyz people was peaceful after the Soviet collapse. In October 1990 the Supreme Soviet of the republic, it was decided to rename the Kyrghyz SSR in the “Kyrgyz Republic”.
December 15, 1990 the Supreme Soviet adopted the Declaration of Sovereignty of the Republic, and on 31 August 1991 – Declaration of Independence of Kyrgyzstan.
May 5, 1993 adopted the first Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic as an independent sovereign state.
May 10, 1993 in Kyrgyzstan was introduced its own national currency – Som.
June 27, 2010 adopted a new Constitution, according to which Kyrgyzstan has announced a parliamentary form of government.
October 10, 2010 were made transparent and fair parliamentary elections. On the basis of the new parliament the party is all the real structure of society.
Parliamentary opposition led the committee on budget and finance, which allows the opposition to control the whole economic policy of the executive branch, which formed the pro-governmental coalition.
In accordance with the Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic, November 2011 presidential election is scheduled. The president is elected for a term of 6 years, 5 years in parliament. Parliament approves the prime minister, who forms the cabinet.
Promising directions of the development which will contribute to strengthening and deepening the integration of Kyrgyzstan with Central Asian countries and other partners are mining and hydropower, water resources – the basis of the Kyrgyz economy, which offer opportunities for mutually beneficial cooperation.
Currently, in order to ensure transparency in the economy have audited a number of major energy companies, with each ministry set up a Public review boards, which serve as an effective mechanism of public control over activities of state bodies.
Examining the media as an important factor to ensure transparency, the conditions for the development of freedom of expression and greater transparency in the society. Also, the conditions for the development of a strong civil society. The presence of a strong civil society was a major factor in the fight against corruption.
On the legality and transparency improves the investment climate in the country, the economic downturn is changing growth. With effective use of existing capacity can be predicted GDP growth of over 5% in 2011.
Also, in Kyrgyzstan, there is great potential for development of information technologies, processing industry, textile industry and tourism industry.
In May 2011 Parliament adopted the Law “On the Park of High Technologies”. In the coming years plans to build industrial parks for the garment industry and IT-technologies. Development of processing industry will deliver to European markets high-quality, environmentally friendly products. Kyrgyzstan also has a great potential for tourism development, and invite big investors to create together the world’s most visited tourist resorts.
Now in Kyrgyzstan formed a favorable situation in the medium and small businesses. This is due to limited audits of small and medium-sized businesses.
Kyrgyzstan has been an active participant in many international organizations such as UN, CIS, SCO and others.
So, in 2012, Kyrgyzstan will preside in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization will hold a meeting of the Council and the Heads of State in 2013 and the Council of Heads of Government in 2012 on its territory.